About :Pitot-static System

Plane Spotters India | About :Pitot-static System

pitot-static system is a system of pressure-sensitive instruments that is most often used in aviation to determine an aircraft's airspeedMach numberaltitude, and altitude trend. A pitot-static system generally consists of a pitot tube, a static port, and the pitot-static instruments.
This equipment is used to measure the forces acting on a vehicle as a function of the temperature, density, pressure and viscosity of the fluid in which it is operating.
 Other instruments that might be connected are air data computersflight data recordersaltitude encoderscabin pressurization controllers, and various airspeed switches. Errors in pitot-static system readings can be extremely dangerous as the information obtained from the pitot static system, such as altitude, is often critical to a successful flight. Several commercial airline disasters have been traced to a failure of the pitot-static system.

The pitot-static system of instruments uses the principle of air pressure gradient. It works by measuring pressures or pressure differences and using these values to assess the speed and altitude.These pressures can be measured either from the static port (static pressure) or the pitot tube (pitot pressure). The static pressure is used in all measurements, while the pitot pressure is only used to determine airspeed.

The pitot tube is normally mounted on the leading edge of a wing. The pitot tube on an aircraft used only for flight underVisual Flight Rules (VFR) may not be heated to prevent icing. Aircraft to be used under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) are heated electrically, to prevent icing when operating in visible moisture and cold temperatures. A switch in the cockpit controls Pitot heat.

The static pressure port is normally found on the side of the fuselage. On later model aircraft, an alternate static source is provided inside the cockpit. The pilot can select the internal static source if the outside source becomes clogged with ice.. When the pilot selects the alternative source, the instruments relying on the static pressure may operate slightly differently.
  • The altimeter (ALT) may indicate a higher-than-actual altitude.
  • The vertical speed indicator (VSI) will momentarily indicate a climb, then will settle back the initial indication.
  • The Airspeed Indicator (ASI) will indicate greater-than-normal airspeed. Altimeter (ALT)

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